2. What are the problems associated with programming using abstract data types?
- In nearly all cases, the features and capabilities of the existing type are not quite right for the new use.
- The type definitions are all independent and are at the same level.
4. What is message protocol?
The entire collection of methods of an object is called the message protocol, or message interface, of the object.
5. What is an overriding method?
An overriding method is a method that provide an operation in the subclass that is similar to one in the parent class, but is customized for objects of the subclass. For example, a parent class, Bird, might have a draw method that draws a generic bird. A subclass of Bird named Waterfowl could override the draw method inherited from Bird to draw a generic waterfowl, perhaps a duck.
7. What is dynamic dispatch?
Dynamic dispatch is the third characteristic (after abstract data types and inheritance) of object-oriented programming language which is a kind of polymorhphism provided by the dynamic binding of messages to method definitions.
8. What is an abstract method? What is an abstract class?
For example, suppose a program defined a Building class and a collection of subclasses for specific types of buildings, for instance, French_Gothic. It probably would not make sense to have an implemented draw method in Building. But because all of its descendant classes should have such an implemented method, the protocol (but not the body) of that method is included in Building. Such a method is often called an abstract method ( pure virtual method in C++). A class that includes at least one abstract method is called an abstract class (abstract base class in C++).
10. What is an inner class?
Inner classes are non-static classes that are nested directly in another class.
12. From where are Smalltalk objects allocated?
Smalltalk objects are allocated from the heap and are referenced through reference variables, which are implicitly dereferenced.
15. What kind of inheritance, single or multiple, does Smalltalk support?
Smalltalk supports single inheritance; it does not allow multiple inheritance.
19. How are C++ heap-allocated objects deallocated?
C++ heap-allocated objects are deallocated using destructor.
29. Does Objective-C support multiple inheritance?
No Objective-C doesn’t support it. (It supports only single inheritance).
33. What is the purpose of an Objective-C category?
The purpose of an Objective-C category is to add certain functionalities to different classes and also to provide some of the benefits of multiple inheritance, without the naming collisions that could occur if modules did not require module names on their functions.
38. What is boxing?
Boxing is primitive values in Java 5.0+ which is implicitly coerced when they are put in object context. This coercion converts the primitive value to an object of the wrapper class of the primitive value’s type.
39. How are Java objects deallocated?
By implicitly calling a finalizemethod when the garbage collector is about to reclaim the storage occupied by the object.
1 . What important part of support for inheritance is missing in Java?
Java does not support the private and protected derivations of C++. One can surmise that the Java designers believed that subclasses should be subtypes, which they are not when private and protected derivations are supported. Thus, they did not include them.
3. Compare the inheritance of C++ and Java.
- In Java, all classes inherit from the Object class directly or indirectly. Therefore, there is always a single inheritance tree of classes in Java, and Object class is root of the tree. In Java, if we create a class that doesn’t inherit from any class then it automatically inherits from Object Class. In C++, there is forest of classes; when we create a class that doesn’t inherit from anything, we create a new tree in forest.
- In Java, members of the grandparent class are not directly accessible.
- The meaning of protected member access specifier is somewhat different in Java. In Java, protected members of a class “A” are accessible in other class “B” of same package, even if B doesn’t inherit from A (they both have to be in the same package)
- Java uses extends keyword for inheritence. Unlike C++, Java doesn’t provide an inheritance specifier like public, protected or private. Therefore, we cannot change the protection level of members of base class in Java, if some data member is public or protected in base class then it remains public or protected in derived class. Like C++, private members of base class are not accessible in derived class.
- Unlike C++, in Java, we don’t have to remember those rules of inheritance which are combination of base class access specifier and inheritance specifier.
- In Java, methods are virtual by default. In C++, we explicitly use virtual keyword.
- Java uses a separate keyword interface for interfaces, and abstract keyword for abstract classes and abstract functions.
- Unlike C++, Java doesn’t support multiple inheritance. A class cannot inherit from more than one class. A class can implement multiple interfaces though.
- – In C++, default constructor of parent class is automatically called, but if we want to call parametrized constructor of a parent class, we must use Initalizer list. Like C++, default constructor of the parent class is automatically called in Java, but if we want to call parametrized constructor then we must use super to call the parent constructor
5. Compare abstract class and interface in Java.
- First and major difference between abstract class and interface is that, abstract class is a class while interface is a interface, means by extending abstract class you can not extend another class becauseJava does not support multiple inheritance but you can implement multiple inheritance in Java.
- Second difference between interface and abstract class in Java is that you can not create non abstract method in interface, every method in interface is by default abstract, but you can create non abstract method in abstract class. Even a class which doesn’t contain any abstract method can be abstract by using abstract keyword.
- Third difference between abstract class and interface in Java is that abstract class are slightly faster than interface because interface involves a search before calling any overridden method in Java. This is not a significant difference in most of cases but if you are writing a time critical application than you may not want to leave any stone unturned.
- Fourth difference between abstract class vs interface in Java is that, interface are better suited for Type declaration and abstract class is more suited for code reuse and evolution perspective.
- Another notable difference between interface and abstract class is that when you add a new method in existing interface it breaks all its implementation and you need to provide an implementation in all clients which is not good. By using abstract class you can provide default implementation in super class.
10. Explain one advantage of inheritance.
Inheritance offers a solution to both the modification problem posed by abstract data type reuse and the program organization problem. If a new abstract data type can inherit the data and functionality of some existing type, and is also allowed to modify some of those entities and add new entities, reuse is greatly facilitated without requiring changes to the reused abstract data type. Programmers can begin with an existing abstract data type and design a modified descendant of it to fit a new problem requirement. Furthermore, inheritance provides a framework for the definition of hierarchies of related classes that can reflect the descendant relationships in the problem space.
12. Compare inheritance and nested classes in C++. Which of these supports an is-a relationship?
Inheritance is where one class (child class) inherits the members of another class (parent class).Nested class is a class declared entirely within the body of another class or interface.
17. What are the different options for object destruction in Java?
Finalize is related to C++ destructor. A finalize method is implicitly called when the garbage collector is about to reclaim the storage occupied by the object. The problem with finalize is that the time it will run cannot be forced or even predicted. The alternative to using finalize to reclaim resources held by an object about to be garbage collected is to include a method that does the reclamation. The only problem with this is that all clients of the objects must be aware of this method and remember to call it.
20. Compare the way Smalltalk provides dynamic binding with that of C++.
In C++, the programmer can specify whether static binding or dynamic binding is to be used. Because static binding is faster, this is an advantage for those situations where dynamic binding is not necessary. Furthermore, even the dynamic binding in C++ is fast when compared with that of Smalltalk. Binding a virtual member function call in C++ to a function definition has a fixed cost, regardless of how distant in the inheritance hierarchy the definition appears. Calls to virtual functions require only five more memory references than statically bound calls (Stroustrup, 1988). In Smalltalk, however, messages are always dynamically bound to methods, and the farther away in the inheritance hierarchy the correct method is, the longer it takes. The disadvantage of allowing the user to decide which bindings are static and which are dynamic is that the original design must include these decisions, which may have to be changed later.
21. Compare the support for polymorphism in C# with that of in Objective-C.
In Objective-C, polymorphism is implemented in a way that differs from the way it is done in most other common programming languages. A polymorphic variable is created by declaring it to be of type id. Such a variable can reference any object. The run-time system keeps track of the class of the object to which
an id type variable refers. If a call to a method is made through such a variable, the call is dynamically bound to the correct method, assuming one exists.
To allow dynamic binding of method calls to methods in C#, both the base method and its corresponding methods in derived classes must be specially marked. The base class method must be marked with virtual, as in C++. To make clear the intent of a method in a subclass that has the same name and protocol as a virtual method in an ancestor class, C# requires that such methods be marked override if they are to override the parent class virtual method.
25. Study and explain private and public modifiers in C++. How do those modifiers differ in C#?
C++ includes both classes and structs, which are nearly identical constructs. The only difference is that the default access modifier for class is private, whereas for structs it is public. C# also has structs, but they are very different from those of C++. In C#, structs are, in a sense, lightweight classes. They can have constructors, properties, methods, and data fields and can implement interfaces but do not support inheritance.